Higher Physics Lab Light & Optics



Exp-1 To measure the light intensity of plane polarized light as a function of the analyzer position.
Exp-2 To verify Malus law.
Exp-3 To verify inverse square law.

  • Pin hole photo detector.
  • He-Ne laser with in-built power supply.
  • Optical bench with central support.
  • Transversal saddle for Y-axis motion.
  • Polarization
  • Malus law
  • Polarizer
  • Analyser
  • Electric field of light

Principle and Working :
When a light beam passes through a polarizer filter, it gets linearly polarized. When this linearly polarized light passes through analyzer, its intensity depends on the angular position of the analyzer. The maximum light intensity is transmitted when the optical axis of polarizer and analyzer coincide. The intensity of transmitted beam depends on the angular position between the optical axis of the polarizer and analyzer (θ) and is defined by Malus law as I=I0 cos2θ where I0 is the intensity of incident light.

Further the intensity of light depends on the distance between the source and the detector and is defined by the inverse square law.


Cat No. Item Name Qty.
R3891 He-Ne laser 1
SL215 Optical bench, 1.5m 1
LP18 Connecting leads pair 1m 1
SE067 Digital multimeter 1
SL801 Polarizer / Analyzer 2
SL436 Transverse saddle 1
SN1016 Photo detector 1
SN204 Flexible plug lead red 1
SN201 Flexible plug lead black 1

Light & Optics Experiments