Exp-1 To determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter.

Exp-2 To study the thermal conductivity of copper and aluminum in a constant temperature gradient.

Exp-3 To determine the electrical conductivity of aluminum and copper by plotting a current-voltage characteristic curve.

Exp-4 To verify the Wiedmann-Franz law and find out the Lorenz number.

- Safety tested high current power supply.
- Multipurpose data logger.
- Sample rod (Copper & Aluminum).
- Microvoltmeter.

- Heat transportation.
- Thermal conductivity.
- Electrical conductivity.
- Phonon.
- Temperature gradient.
- Wiedmann-Franz law
- Lorenz number.

**Principle and Working:**

The heat conduction occurs due to the temperature difference between different locations of a body. In this setup a one-dimensional temperature gradient along a copper and aluminum rod is investigated. The quantity of heat dQ transported with time dt is a function of the cross-sectional area A and the temperature gradient dT/dx perpendicular to the surface is defined as:

**dQ/dt = -λ A (dT/dx)**

λ is the thermal conductivity of the substance.

The electrical conductivity of a metal (Copper & Aluminum) is determined by the resistance R of the rod and its geometric dimensions **(l=0.315 m, A = 4.91 x10-4 m2)
σ = l/(A.R)**

At room temperature T the conduction electrons in metal have a much greater mean free path than the phonons. For this reason heat conduction in metal is primarily due to the electrons. The relationship between the thermal conductivity λ and the electrical conductivity σ is established by the Wiedmann-Franz law:

**λ/σ = L T**

Where L is Lorenz number.

**Contents:**

Cat. No. |
Item Name |
Qty. |

CD549 | Conductivity rod Cu | 1 |

CD550 | Conductivity rod Al | 1 |

CD554 | Calorimeter Vessel | 1 |

CD553 | Calorimeter Vessel with rod holder | 1 |

SW979 | Laboratory jack | 1 |

R8213 | Digital weighing balance | 1 |

IH | Immersion heater | 1 |

Temperature sensor | 3 | |

Data Logging Interface | 1 | |

SV190 | Three finger clamp | 3 |

Support base (Cat no. SH319+SH317) | 1+1 | |

Support rod (Cat no. SH323+SH316) | 1+1 | |

SW092 | Bosshead | 5 |

SE1003 | Power supply 20Amp | 1 |

SR010 | Microvoltmeter | 1 |

LP18 | Connecting lead | 4 |

SC228 | Glass beaker | 1 |

*** Additionally Required**

Computer not supplied with this setup.